Skin Disorders
Bookmark and Share
   Acquired Melanocytic Nevocellular Nevi
   Acral Lentiginous Melanoma
   Acute HIV Syndrome
   Acute Lymphangitis
   Acute Sun Damage
   Adult T Cell Leukemia
   Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions
   Alopecia Areata
   Androgenetic Alopecia
   Aphthous Ulcer
   Bacillary Angiomatosis
   Bacterial Infections
   Basal Cell Carcinoma
   Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome
   Behcet's Syndrome
   Benign Cutaneous Neoplasms
   Capillary Hemangioma of Infancy
   Cat-Scratch Disease
   Chronic Lupus Panniculitis
   Chronic Venous Insufficiency
   Clark Melanocytic Nevus
   Congenital Nevomelanocytic Nevus
   Crest Syndrome
   Cutaneous Candidiasis
   Cutaneous Larva Migrans
   Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus
   Cutaneous and Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis
   Cutaneous Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infections
   Cutaneous Reactions to Arthropod Bites
   Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma
   Desmoplastic Melanoma
   Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis
   Disseminated Cryptococcosis
   Disseminated Gonococcal Infection
   Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
   Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome
   Drug-Induced Acute Urticaria
   Drug-Induced Pigmentation
   Eosinophilic Folliculitis
   Erysipelas and Cellulitis
   Erythema Infectiosum
   Erythropoietic Protoporphyria
   Exanthematous Drug Reactions
   Exfoliative Erythroderma Syndrome
   Extramammary Paget's Disease
   Eye Stye
   Fixed Drug Eruption
   Gangrenous Cellulitis
   Genital Candidiasis
   Giant Cell Arteritis
   Glucagonoma Syndrome
   Graft Versus Host Disease
   Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease
   Herpes Gestationis
   Herpes Simplex Virus: Genital Infections
   Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
   Herpes Simplex Virus: Infections Associated Systemic Immunocompromise
   Herpes Simplex Virus
   Herpes Zoster
   HIV Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome
   Human Papillomavirus: Mucosal Infections
   Human Papillomavirus: Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ
   Human Papillomavirus
   Hypersensitivity Vasculitis
   Hypertrophic Scars and Keloid
   Impetigo and Ecthyma
   Infectious Exanthems
   Infectious Folliculitis
   Infective Endocarditis
   Infestations of the Skin
   Kaposi's Sarcoma
   Kawasaki's Disease

Home :: Thrombophlebitis and Deep Venous Thrombosis

Thrombophlebitis and Deep Venous Thrombosis

Superficial phlebitis is an inflammatory thrombosis of a superficial normal vein, usually due to infection or trauma from needles and catheters, or of a varicose vein usually in the context of the chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) syndrome. Deep venous thrombosis is due to thrombotic obstruction of a vein with or without an inflammatory response and occurs due to slow blood flow, hypercoagulability, or changes in the venous walls.

Causes of Thrombophlebitis and Deep Venous Thrombosis

The thrombus originates in an area of low venous flow. An occlusion of a vein by thrombus imposes a block to venous return which leads to increased venous pressure and edema in the distal limb. An inflammatory response to the thrombus causes pain and tenderness. If the venous pressure is too high, arterial limb flow may rarely be compromised and ischemia of the distal limb may occur. The thrombus in the vein often has a free-floating tail, which may break off to produce a pulmonary embolus. Organization of the thrombus in the vein destroys the venous walls, and this leads to post-phlebitic syndrome.

Symptoms of Thrombophlebitis and Deep Venous Thrombosis

  • Swelling
  • Gradual onset of pain
  • Redness
  • Warm to touch
  • Worsening leg pain when bending the foot
  • Leg cramps, especially at night
  • Bluish or whitish discoloration of skin
  • pain, or an aching heavy sensation in the limb, sudden swelling, tenderness, or discoloration of the limb
  • slight fever


Diagnosis based on clinical exam alone can be difficult since none of the symptoms of thrombophlebitis or DVT are unique and can be due to other disorders. Objective testing is mandatory to establish the diagnosis. There is no specific blood test available that readily identifies a diagnosis of DVT.

Duplex ultrasonography is a noninvasive test that is the preferred initial study for DVT. It is a combination of real-time B-mode ultrasound and Doppler assessment. An ultrasound beam is used to locate areas of vein obstruction that are indicative of a thrombus.

Contrast venography is a procedure that is used when other less invasive tests are inconclusive. It is the only reliable test for patients who are asymptomatic (without symptoms). Dye is injected into a vein in the foot. The dye allows visualization of the leg veins to determine whether there are areas of defect that indicate a blockage of the vein by a thrombus.

Impedance plethysmography is a noninvasive method in which a pneumatic cuff is placed around the thigh and inflated. A mild electrical current is passed through the leg and provides information on blood flow when the cuff is deflated.


The treatment of deep venous thrombosis is anticoagulation. IV heparin is given at a loading dose of 5000 U and approximately 1000 U/h thereafter. The partial thromboplastin time (PTT) should be 1.5 to 2 times normal. Low-molecular-weight heparin is also effective, and warfarin can be started orally at the same time and should overlap heparin for 5 days until the necessary factors for blood clotting are depressed. Patients should be treated for 3 months with anticoagulation. Elastic stockings and compression are mandatory and should be worn for at least three months, and ambulation should be started as soon as symptoms subside.

More Skin Disorders
   Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
   Leg Ulcers
   Lentigo Maligna
   Leukemia Cutis
   Livedo Reticularis
   Localized Infection
   Lupus Erythematosus
   Lyme Borreliosis
   Lymphogranuloma Venereum
   Lymphomatoid Papulosis
   Malignant Melanoma of the Mucosa
   Mammary Paget's Disease
   Mastocytosis Syndromes
   Merkel Cell Carcinoma
   Metastatic Cancer to the Skin
   Molluscum Contagiosum
   Mycobacterium Fortuitum Complex Infection
   Mycobacterium Marinum Infection
   Mycobacterium Ulcerans Infection
   Necrobiosis Lipoidica
   Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections
   Nodular Melanoma
   Nodular Vasculitis
   Nongenital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
   North American Blastomycosis
   Oral Hairy Leukoplakia
   Oropharyngeal Candidiasis
   Other Viral Infections
   Papulosquamous Conditions
   Pediculosis Capitis
   Pediculosis Pubis
   Photoallergic Drug Induced Photosensitivity
   Phototoxic Drug Induced Photosensitivity
   Pitted Keratolysis
   Pityriasis Versicolor
   Polyarteritis Nodosa
   Polymorphous Light Eruption
   Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
   Port-Wine Stain
   Premalignant and Malignant Skin Tumors
   Pressure Ulcers
   Pruritic Urticarial Papules
   Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum
   Pyogenic Granuloma
   Radiation Dermatitis
   Raynaud's Disease
   Reiter's Syndrome
   Rocky Mountain Spotted Fevers
   X-Linked Hyper-IgM Syndrome
   Xeroderma Pigmentosum
   Yellow Fever
   Yellow Nail Syndrome
   Zinc Deficiency

Skin Disorders || Contact Us || Tweet

Copyright © All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer - The data contained in the Web pages is provided for the purpose of educational purposes and information only. It is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice and shall not create a physician - patient relationship. We are not responsible for any consequence resulted from using this information. Please always consult your physician for medical advices and treatment.